Diabetes Mellitus in Cats Diabetes Mellitus in Cats : Cats who do not have insulin have a disease called diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is and extremely common disease in cats

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Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs and Cats

All consumed food is eventually converted to sugar, the energy source for every organ in the body and for every cell in every organ. If too much food is consumed, the extra calories can be stored by the body for later conversion to sugar. Sugar is carried in the blood to all areas of the body, and any cell that is in need of sugar simply uses the sugar present in the blood. How do cells move sugar into their interior from the bloodstream? A substance called insulin, produced by an organ located in the abdomen (the pancreas), is the key that allows cells to obtain sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is necessary for life.

People, dogs, and cats who do not have insulin have a disease called diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is and extremely common disease in people, dogs, and cats. There are two common forms of diabetes. The form in which an individual has absolutely no insulin has several names: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), type I diabetes, and juvenile-type diabetes.

The other form occurs when an individual has insulin but either does not have enough or has a condition that interferes with insulin function. It has several names: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), type II diabetes, adult-onset diabetes.

Approximately 10 per cent of people with diabetes mellitus have type I disease and 90 per cent have type II. Approximately 60 per cent of diabetic cats have type I and 40 per cent type II. Virtually 100 per cent of dogs with diabetes mellitus have type I disease.

What happens when an individual has diabetes mellitus? Without sugar constantly being removed from the blood by cells everywhere in the body, the diabetic person, dog, or cat has more and more sugar accumulates that it begins to "spill over" into the urine through the kidneys along with water. Therefore, diabetics urinate large volumes. In dogs and cats, sometimes the first thing that an owner observes is that the pet is no longer "housebroken" or the pet cat begins urinating outside the litter box. Because the volume of fluid lost into the urine of diabetics is excessive, they make up for these losses by drinking more and more water.

Because cells throughout the body have lost their access to sugar, they begin to "starve." Individual cells do not see the lack of insulin, they see only a lack of energy (sugar). Therefore, messages are sent out for energy (sugar) and the diabetic begins to eat more and more. Cells still have no access to the sugar, so additional messages for energy are sent out and the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy (the components of fat and muscle can be converted to sugar by the liver). Although it makes sense to create more energy, the body still cannot use the sugar resulting from this process. The symptoms common to all diabetics now become obvious: they drink excessively, urinate excessively, eat excessively, and lose weight.

When a dog or cat is brought to a veterinarian for any or all of the symptoms known to be associated with diabetes, the diagnosis is quite easily made. Testing is necessary, however, because there are other diseases that cause all or some of the same symptoms. However, once the diagnosis is made, the real problems begin. Treating diabetes mellitus is not easy. It takes skill by the veterinarian, commitment by the owner, and some luck.

The cornerstones of treating type II diabetic people include weight loss, exercise, and changes in diet to increase fiber content and to decrease simple sugars. If these factors do not help enough, pills can be given. Use of all these treatments rarely helps type I diabetic people. Type I diabetic people, like 100 per cent of diabetic dogs and 80 to 90 per cent of diabetic cats, require insulin by injection to live. All diabetic dogs and cats do best with good commercial pet food given in two equal-sized meals (cats that tend to "graze" all day should be allowed to continue feeding that way). High-fiber foods may be of benefit but are not critical.

Unfortunately, although insulin has been available to treat diabetics for more that 70 years, it must still be given by injection. Your veterinarian will teach you how to give injections to your pet. It is understood that this can be quite intimidating for owners and that your pet will feel the needles. However, once you have done this for a few weeks, you will become quite competent and your pet will accept the tiny pinpricks. Don't give up! Your pet can live an extremely healthy life despite requiring insulin.

There are several different kinds of insulin. Regular (R; crystalline) insulin is the most potent and the shortest acting; Ultralente (U) is the least potent and the longest acting; protamine zinc insulin (PZI) is similar to Ultralente; neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH;N) insulin is less potent and longer acting than regular but more potent and shorter acting that Ultralente; and Lente (L) is 30 per cent regular and 70 per cent Ultralente and has effects similar to those of NPH.

One insulin may not work satisfactorily in your pet but another may work well. It takes time to determine which insulin and which insulin dose are best for an individual cat or dog. Whereas most cats and dogs respond best to insulin given twice daily (do not try to give the insulin exactly every 12 hours; it is not necessary), some do well with only one injection per day.

Remember the most important goal in treating a diabetic dog or cat: we want the pet to be happy and stable. No diabetic pet becomes absolutely normal.

Finally, regardless of treatment, virtually 100 per cent of diabetic dogs (not cats) develop cataracts and become blind within the first 6 to 24 months; this is inevitable and not a reflection of the job you have done in treating your pet.

The above is general veterinary information. Do not begin any course of treatment without consulting your regular veterinarian. All animals should be examined at least once every 12 months.

About the author: From the Textbook of Veterinary Internal Information: Client Information Series. Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.

Linda Mar Veterinary Hospital and its cat-only affiliate, Coastal Cat Clinic, are small animal practices located in Pacifica, California. To find a veterinarian or to learn more about the vet clinic and our staff, visit:[http://lindamarvet.com/]


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When Cats Are Aggressive

Cats are usually viewed as relatively peaceful creatures. Most people assume that if a cat is given food, water, and a suitable place to rest then it will remain docile and loving toward its owners while also displaying the usual feline independence.

Not all cats are wired this way. Individual cats have varying personalities, just like people do. While one cat might be cuddly and laid back, another cat might be so high strung that the owners miss out on sleep at night because the cat is constantly bouncing off the walls. As long as the personality quirks of each cat are acceptable to the owners, there isn't a problem about differing personalities among cats.

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Aggressive cats can inflict a lot of damage. While a cat can't compare to the damage that can be done by a large dog, their speed and agility can cause some great pain. Aggressive cats should never be around young children with supervision.
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Which vaccines should my cat get?

Cat owners are often a bit confused when upon taking their cat for their yearly physical examination the animal hospital receptionist asks which vaccinations they want to give to their cat. Every thing can however, be much clearer once vaccinations may be divided into two categories; core and non core.

Core vaccinations are generally those that are given to most cats. They are often the standard vaccinations required for a pet upon boarding, being hospitalized or upon traveling. These are the vaccinations all cats should definitelyhave, since they are the basic ones. While non core vaccination ore equally important, they are however given on a case by case basis depending on various factors such as if the cat is indoors or outdoors, if the area is known for the eruption of certain diseases, or other factors such as the cat's age and general health status. Following are listed the core and non core vaccines.

Core Vaccines
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* Rabies
This vaccine is actually mandate by law in just about every where nowadays, because of the seriousness of this disease. It is tranmitted by a bite from an infected animal. The first rabies vaccine is generally given for the first time when the kitten is over 12 weeks old. After ward, the cat will get another booster one year later, and then depending on the area it may be given yearly each time or even every three years.

* Distemper
The distemper vaccine is actually a combination vaccine. It is known as FVRCCP. This acronym is composed by the initials of various diseases this vaccine may cover.: Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus, Chlamydiosis and Panleukopenia.

Non Core Vaccinations
These are vaccinations given on a case by case basis. They are usually recommended for cats that live outdoors, because they are transmitted by close contact with an infected cat.
* FIP Feline Infectious Peritonitis (transmitted by exposure to infected feces, infected secretions, or in kittens through the placenta)
* FIV Feline Aids (transmitted by puncturing cat bites or in kittens during gestation or from nursing on infected milk)
* FELV Feline Leukemia (transmitted by infected saliva, therefore cat bites, grooming and sharing cat food bowls and water bowls may trigger the disease. Kittens may get the disease in utero or from infected milk.

Kittens unlike cats must undergo a series of vaccinations, with boosters set apart every three- four weeks. Below is an example of a typical kitten vaccination schedule, for both indoor and outdoor cats:

Continue Reading About Which vaccines should my cat get?




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Feline Anxiety Causes Cat Litter Box Problems

Cats experience anxiety and get stressed out just like us human staffers. Unlike people, cats don't have a lot of creative ways to express their feelings. Unfortunately, when cats suffer from stress and anxiety, they generally communicate it in a very clear way that can really turn humans upside down. They usually tell us by not using the cat litter box.


And since we can't speak meow, and cats don't talk, the challenge is to figure why our cats aren't feeling right. Usually when a cat stops using her litter box, it's a medical problem. But if it isn't, one of causes high on my list is stress and anxiety.


What do cats get anxious about? Here's a partial list:

- Moving to a new home

- Gaining a new household member, animal or human

- You change jobs and start a new schedule

- You bring new furniture into your home

- Kitty's favorite person moves out, and she misses that individual

- Construction and/or remodeling of your home

- Relocation of her cat litter box(es)

- Change in type of cat litter


This list is not complete. Felines are complicated creatures, and almost anything can set them off.


If your cat suddenly stops using the litter box out of the blue, eliminate any medical causes first. If kitty gets a clean bill of health, examine the list above, and think about any recent changes you've made to your home. If it appears to be a coincidence, it probably isn't.


This can be a tough problem to solve, but once you figure out the cause, you can start developing solutions. If the stress-inducing situation is temporary (such as the last three items on my list), they can be dealt with. On the other hand, if the problem appears to be one of the first five, you'll need plenty of patience and a strategy to get kitty right again.


Often, once kitty gets used to the change, she'll calm down and start to use her litter box again. During her adjustment period, it may work to confine her to one room with her food, water, litter box, bedding, and toys. This limits the amount of damage done to your home, and as kitty realizes the changes mean her no harm, she'll get back to her good cat litter box habits.


You can also help kitty calm down by purchasing synthetic feline hormones. These will reassure her that life is still OK. You can also administer homeopathic remedies that are completely natural and cause no side effects.


Many feline owners get an anti-anxiety prescription for kitty, but if your cat freaks out over being pilled, this will increase her stress. If this is the case, rely on the synthetic hormones and homeopathic remedies to solve this problem.

Consult with your vet on the best course of action to help your kitty quickly get over her stress and anxiety. Reassure your cat with lots of extra attention and love, and this too shall pass!


About the Author

Nancy stopped the cat urine odor problem at her home, and kept the kitty that caused it. "18 Ways to Stop Cat Urine Odor Problems" saves you money, time and frustration by solving your cat urine odor problem - permanently.

http://www.stopcaturineodor.com

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Focus On Cat Health

Cat Health

Several Classic Cat Health Warning Signs

As a cat owner, cat health problems are at the top of my list of concerns. The various illnesses your cat may face are many and varied, and your cat can't tell you how she's feeling, at least not in words. Feline illness symptoms, like that in humans, often overlap.

As a rule, your cat is at higher risk for developing a disease if she has been stressed recently. Pre-existing health problems, recent surgery, or a life change of some type can all add stress to your cat's life. Life changing events may include the addition or removal of a family member or other pet, or perhaps a change of homes.

Cats can catch a cold or the flu, or develop any number of feline specific problems, such as cat parasites. She can also be affected by heart disease, certain cancers, and diabetes. Some of these cat health issues will require treatment.

If you notice something is not right, it's best to call your veterinarian up front and let her know. That way, if things seem to get worse, both you and your vet will be better prepared to handle the situation later. Below are some problems to watch out for.

General signs -- Your cat may exhibit some of the same signs that you'd expect to see in people if she has the flu, a cold, injury, or infection. General symptoms of cat illness include sneezing, coughing, lethargy, and nasal discharge. Your cat may experience excessive drooling if she has an infection or the flu, and may also have a fever.
Continue Reading About Several Classic Cat Health Warning Signs


The Cat With Kidney Problems

Does your cat have a kidney problem? Then you are not only going to need to learn more cat information in general so that you can comprehend the animal better but as well you are going to need to produce a proper feline kidney diet.

Changing to a feline kidney diet will help in a number of ways; it is going to make certain that your cat is receiving all the nutrition they require to strive. A feline kidney diet needs to include special vitamins and minerals than you do not generally get in a regular feline diet because there are kidney problems.

Where to begin
To understand what is going to help your cat and what dietary changes it will require you need to understand the cat. Cats are naturally carnivores, and the greatest way to formulate a feline kidney diet plan is to make sure to comprise foods that the cats would eat out in the wild, as this is where they initially come from.

The next step is where it gets tough. You are going to need to understand how to read a pet food ingredient label, so you can make sure that you are selecting the correct food for your cat. The current labeling system for pet foods is gravely deficient in functional information and looking at the list of ingredients will tend to give an imperfect picture of what is in fact in the food in terms of the quantity of each ingredient.

Even though you may have heard different, the majority if not all of the so-called prescription diets that are sold in veterinary hospitals are not formulated for most favorable health of a carnivore. A lot of of these products include corn, wheat and soy which really have no logical place in a cat's diet even though most people incorrectly think this because this is believed by so many people.

Diet is the brick and mortar of health, and so if you want your cat to live a long healthy life, you are going to need to make sure that they are eating all the right foods. Not only do you need to provide them with a proper feline kidney diet but as well make sure that they are drinking enough water and getting enough exercise.

You will want to do as a great deal investigation of your own, so that you can find out more about cats in general and as well about your cat in particular, what their health problems are and what you can do to obtain care of them and get them to a most favorable condition of health.
Continue Reading about The Cat With Kidney Problems

Got Cat Urine Smell Blues?

It's a couple of hours before my big party and I'm almost ready to go out. I took the cats to the neighborhood vet for a weekend stay. I cleaned the house from top to bottom and everything looks great. As I leave to go and pick up some last minute items for the party, I went back into the house only to be greeted with the awful smell of cat urine when I entered the door.

Surely, the cat smell should be gone. The rugs were shampooed. The party starts in 4 hours and my house smells like industrial cleaner, air freshener and cat pee.

It is very embarrassing when you have company over, your house is clean and your guests get a whiff of cat urine. Not good at all.

For those of you who have problems getting rid of cat urine odor, this one's for you. Here are some home remedies to help you kick the odor.

Cats are clean animals which have peculiar ways. The best way to control the place where a cat urinates is by always keeping their litter box clean. A cat will not urinate in its litter box if it can smell the odor of urine. Instead, it will find some other place to urinate like the carpet or that favorite rug which is so cozy.

A cat will urinate in the same spot until it can smell the unpleasant aroma of urine and then will seek another area.

One economical recipe for curing cat urine odor and stains from the carpet is to use common household elements such as vinegar, water, peroxide and baking soda. The way this works is you will first try to get up the excess urine from the carpet. Dilute vinegar with 3 parts water and soak on soiled area. Once you've soaked the area you can pour peroxide on the area and sprinkle with baking soda. Vacuum the excess.

This is a cheap economical way to remove cat urine odor from rugs and similar areas in your home.

Once I tried this home remedy, I realized that if I would just do this once or twice a week, my house would keep a fresh smell. The one key to keeping an odorless home, is to make sure that I am keeping the litter box as clean as possible so that the cats will feel comfortable peeing in their preferable place
Continue Reading about: Got Cat Urine Smell Blues?


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Know More About Purebred Cat Breeds

All types of cats and no matter if they are purebred or not do wonderful feline companions. If you have your heart set on getting a purebred cat, here are some popular breeds that you might consider. Some might be surprised to know that you can find cats and kittens in your local rescue. If you are looking for a specific race that you could call or go by the local emergency center before seeking a breeder.

British Short Hair
British shorthair cats are one of the oldest cat breeds and English ancestry goes back to Rome. This breed was first known for its ability to hunt because of his physical strength. However, this breed is also known for his calm demeanor and loyalty.

The British Shorthair has a short plush coat is very soft and easy to groom. These cats are larger and they prefer to stay on the ground. They are pets and families are very loyal companions. The original color of these cats is a grayish blue, now you can find these adorable animals in a variety of colors.

Birman
Birman cats are believed to have originated in Burma and they were considered sacred animals and belonged to the high priests. It is believed that this cat breeds were created in the Western world around 1925. These cats are lovely companions and were marked by very distinctive.

Birman cats are usually very long and thick. Their hair is long and silky, but it is not as thick as the Persian cat and does not mat easily. Their fur is usually light in color with a gilded plaster. The points on the face, legs and tail are darker and are similar to Siamese. They have big blue eyes and a face looking strong. The only thing distinctive about the Birman cat that makes them stand out from others is their very distinctive white feet. These cats have great personalities that make them good pets and family companions.

Burmese
Burmese cats get their distinctive colors of selective breeding to Siamese cats. They come in a variety of different colors, including champagne stable, blue and platinum. Their clothes are very short and had a texture of silk, which means they require little grooming. Burmese cats are compact and have a more rounded head and large expressive eyes.

These cats are very lively and like to play even when they are adults. Burmese cats are very intelligent and they seem to have each their distinct personality. Some people say their dog-like tendencies because they like the shade of their owners and have a desire to give and receive affection. They love being around people and our great companions.

Persian Long Hair
Persians have been appointed for the country they were from and their heritage is known back to 1600 BC but nobody knows their exact origins. They have long flowing coats and faces very distinctive which makes it a very popular breed. Persians are sweet and nice and well suited to any family. They have short legs with heavy support their great bodies and like to have short feet firmly planted on the ground. They are not in climbing and jumping. They can be playful, but like lounging in their favorite chair or window.

Persians should be kept indoors because of their long flowing coats. They must be combed daily to remove tangles and hairballs. When most people think that the Persian cat they think of the color white, but actually come Persians and range of colors, including solid color, tabby and bicolor.

These cats can easily live to 20 years with proper care and annual visits to the vet. Cats are beautiful to watch and their gentle nature makes them ideal for all types of families. These are just some of the most popular breeds that work well with families. There are many more types of cats that are just as friendly and popular as those mentioned above, including the Manx and Siamese cat. The cats can be expensive and you need to ensure they had adequate food and are kept healthy. This can be done by keeping them inside and take each year to your veterinarian.

To ensure your cat breeds remains healthy and enjoy a long life, you might consider obtaining insurance cat snacks unexpected medical expenses will be in years to come. You have insurance on the rest of your family and peace of mind that you might want to get insurance on your cat feline companion.
Continue Reading about: Purebred cats


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